Mechanisms of pathogenesis and the evolution of parasite virulence

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Abstract

When studying how much a parasite harms its host, evolutionary biologists turn to the evolutionary theory of virulence. That theory has been successful in predicting how parasite virulence evolves in response to changes in epidemiological conditions of parasite transmission or to perturbations induced by drug treatments. The evolutionary theory of virulence is, however, nearly silent about the expected differences in virulence between different species of parasite. Why, for example, is anthrax so virulent, whereas closely related bacterial species cause little harm? The evolutionary theory might address such comparisons by analysing differences in tradeoffs between parasite fitness components: transmission as a measure of parasite fecundity, clearance as a measure of parasite lifespan and virulence as another measure that delimits parasite survival within a host. However, even crude quantitative estimates of such tradeoffs remain beyond reach in all but the most controlled of experimental conditions. Here, we argue that the great recent advances in the molecular study of pathogenesis provide a way forward. In light of those mechanistic studies, we analyse the relative sensitivity of tradeoffs between components of parasite fitness. We argue that pathogenic mechanisms that manipulate host immunity or escape from host defences have particularly high sensitivity to parasite fitness and thus dominate as causes of parasite virulence. The high sensitivity of immunomodulation and immune escape arise because those mechanisms affect parasite survival within the host, the most sensitive of fitness components. In our view, relating the sensitivity of pathogenic mechanisms to fitness components will provide a way to build a much richer and more general theory of parasite virulence.

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