Spatial and genetic structure of host-associated differentiation in the parasitoidCopidosoma gelechiae

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Abstract

Host-associated differentiation (HAD) appears to be an important driver of diversification in the hyperdiverse phytophagous and parasitoid insects. The gallmaking moth Gnorimoschema gallaesolidaginis has undergone HAD on two sympatric goldenrods (Solidago), and HAD has also been documented in its parasitoid Copidosoma gelechiae, with the intriguing suggestion that differentiation has proceeded independently in multiple populations. We tested this suggestion with analysis of Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP) markers for C. gelechiae collections from the midwestern and northeastern United States and eastern Canada. AFLP data were consistent with the existence of HAD, with between-host FST significant before Bonferroni correction in two of seven sympatric populations. amova analysis strongly rejected a model of HAD with a single historical origin, and thus supported the repeated-HAD hypothesis. Copidosoma gelechiae shows significant host-associated divergence at a number of allozyme loci (Stireman et al., 2006), but only weak evidence via AFLPs for genome-wide differentiation, suggesting that this species is at a very early stage of HAD.

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