Epidemiologic Status of Equine Viral Arteritis, Equine Infectious Anemia, and Glanders in Jordan

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Abstract

The objective of the present cross-sectional study was to determine whether antibodies against equine infectious anemia (EIA), equine viral arteritis (EVA), and Burkholderia mallei in horses from Jordan can be detected at all; moreover, the study aimed at identifying potential risk factors associated with a positive serologic result. Data related to management of each farm and individual horses were collected. Commercially available serologic kits were used to detect the presence of serum antibodies in 254 horses. Potential risk factors associated with seropositivity were evaluated using the one-sided chi square tests of association. All serum samples were negative for equine infectious anemia virus and glanders. Therefore, no risk factors could be determined. A total of 6 (2.4%) sera had antibodies to equine arteritis virus (EAV). There was a significant (P < .05) regional difference with all positive cases from Northern Jordan. Horses aged 1 to 3 years old had significantly higher (P < .05) seroprevalence to EAV than horses older than 3 years of age. Horses grazing in pastures had significantly lower (P < .05) seroprevalence to EAV than nongrazing horses. Other risk factors such as horse gender, breed, usage, body condition score, presence of donkeys mixed with the horses in the same property, and a history of previous diseases were not significantly associated with seroprevalence to EAV. This is the first study to investigate the epidemiologic status of EIA, EVA, and glanders and report the presence of EAV seropositive horses in Jordan. Further studies are needed to better monitor the status of these diseases in Jordan's horse population.

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