The objective of the present study was to review the current data on the long-term outcomes of calcaneal fractures, with special emphasis on the role of the type of treatment, surgical approach, and reduction and internal fixation. The search was limited to skeletally mature patients. Major databases were searched from 1978 to 2011 to identify studies relating to functional outcome, subjective outcome, and radiographic evaluation at least 2 years after either surgical or conservative treatment of calcaneal fractures. Of 59 initially relevant studies, 25 met our inclusion criteria. A total of 1,730 fractures were identified in 1,557 patients. The mean sample size-weighted follow-up period was 4.6 years. The findings from the present review support current clinical practice that displaced calcaneal fractures are treated surgically from 1 level I evidence study, 1 level II, and multiple studies with less than level II evidence, with open reduction and internal fixation as the method of choice. If the fracture is less complex, percutaneous treatment can be a good alternative according to current level 3 and 4 retrospective data.
Level of Clinical Evidence: 3