Surgical Treatment of Calcaneal Fractures of Sanders Type II and III by a Minimally Invasive Technique Using a Locking Plate

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Abstract

The aim of the present study was to investigate the outcomes of surgical treatment of calcaneal fractures of Sanders type II and III using a minimally invasive technique and a locking plate. We reviewed 33 feet in 33 consecutive patients with Sanders type II and III calcaneal fractures who had undergone a minimally invasive technique using percutaneous reduction and locking plates. All operations were performed by the same surgeons. The postoperative evaluation included radiographs, determination of restoration of Böhler's angle and Gissane's angle, and administration of the American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society ankle-hind foot scale, Maryland Foot Score, and visual analog scale of pain. The mean visual analog scale score was 1.6 ± 1.4 when radiographic fracture healing was observed. The median functional score of the 33 patients (33 feet) reached 82 (interquartile range 80 to 99) at the last follow-up evaluation according to the American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society ankle-hind foot scale and 89 (interquartile range 80 to 99) according to Maryland Foot Score. All cases achieved restoration of a normal Böhler's angle and Gissane's angle. Postoperative superficial infections occurred in 2 patients, subtalar arthritis developed in 2, and no soft tissue necrosis was observed. For Sanders type II and III fractures of the calcaneus bone, treatment with a minimally invasive technique combining percutaneous reduction and locking plate fixation provided satisfactory clinical results, with a lower incidence of complications. However, longer term studies with a larger sample size and more randomized controlled trials are required to define the superiority of our minimally invasive technique compared with conventional surgical treatment of calcaneal fractures.

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