Translation, Cross-Cultural Adaptation, Reliability, and Validity of Turkish Version of the American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society Ankle-Hindfoot Scale

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Abstract

We sought to translate and culturally adapt the American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society ankle-hindfoot scale (AOFAS-AHFS) into Turkish and determine the selected psychometric properties of the translated version. The AOFAS-AHFS is widely used to evaluate disability associated with foot and ankle injuries but has not yet been translated or culturally adapted for Turkish-speaking individuals. The AOFAS-AHFS was translated into Turkish using the Beaton guidelines. The measurement properties of the Turkish AOFAS-AHFS (internal consistency, construct validity, and floor and ceiling effects) were tested in 72 patients (94 feet, 50 [69.4%] females; average ± SD age 44.88 ± 16.30 years) with a variety of foot and ankle pathologic features. Construct validity was analyzed using the Turkish version of the Foot and Ankle Ability Measure (FAAM) and the Medical Outcomes Study short-form 12-item survey (SF-12). The Turkish version of the AOFAS-AHFS showed excellent test–retest reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient 0.91). The correlation coefficients between the AOFAS-AHFS and the FAAM activities of daily living and FAAM sport were r = 0.41, p = .01 and r = 0.37, p = .03, respectively. The correlation coefficients between the AOFAS-AHFS and the SF-12 physical component scale was r = 0.27, p = .08. The weakest correlation was found between the AOFAS-AHFS and the SF-12 mental component scale (r = −0.03, p = .73). The Turkish version of the AOFAS-AHFS has sufficient reliability and validity to measure patient-reported outcomes for Turkish-speaking individuals with a variety of foot and ankle disorders.

Level of Clinical Evidence: 2

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