Long-Term Outcomes of Corrective Osteotomies Using Porous Titanium Wedges for Flexible Flatfoot Deformity Correction

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Abstract

Common corrective osteotomies used in flexible flatfoot deformity reconstruction include Cotton and Evans osteotomies, which require structural graft to maintain correction. Auto-, allo-, and xenografts are associated with a number of limitations, including disease transmission, rejection, donor site morbidity, technical challenges related to graft fashioning, and graft resorption. Porous titanium is a synthetic substance designed to address these flaws; however, few studies have been reported on the efficacy, safety, and long-term outcomes. A multicenter retrospective cohort of 63 consecutive preconfigured porous titanium wedges (PTWs) used in flexible flatfoot reconstructions from June 1, 2009 to June 30, 2015 was evaluated. The primary outcome measure was the pre- to postdeformity correction efficacy. The secondary outcomes included maintenance of correction at a minimum follow-up point of 12 months, complications, graft incorporation, and graft safety profile. Multivariate linear regression found a statistically significant improvement in all radiographic parameters from preoperatively to the final weightbearing radiographs (calcaneocuboid 18.850 ± 4.020 SE, p < .0001; Kite's, 7.810 ± 3.660 SE, p = .04; Meary's 13.910 ± 3.100 SE, p = .0001; calcaneal inclination, 5.550 ± 2.140 SE, p = .015). When restricted to patients with >4 years of follow-up data, maintenance of correction appeared robust in all 4 measurements, demonstrating a lack of bone or graft resorption. No patients were lost to follow-up, no major complications or implant explantation or migration occurred, and all implants were incorporated. Minor complications included hardware pain from plates over grafts (8%), 1 case of scar neuritis, and a 5% table incidence of transfer pain associated with the PTWs. These results support the use of PTWs for safety and degree and maintenance of correction in flatfoot reconstruction.

Level of Clinical Evidence: 4

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