Efficacy of Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy in Diabetic Foot Ulcers Based on Wagner Classification

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Abstract

Diabetic foot ulcer is a common chronic complication of diabetes mellitus. In addition to conventional primary therapy, there are adjuvant therapy methods such as hyperbaric oxygen therapy for the healing of diabetic foot ulcer wounds. The present study aimed to determine the efficacy of hyperbaric oxygen therapy in diabetic foot ulcers based on Wagner classification. It was performed retrospectively from prospectively collected data. One hundred thirty patients with diabetic foot ulcers were assessed in 2 groups: 1 group received hyperbaric oxygen therapy; the other group did not. Patients were examined according to age, sex, ulcer grade based on Wagner classification; ulcer healing status; whether hyperbaric oxygen therapy was received; duration of diabetes in years; HbA1C, sedimentation, C-reactive protein levels; and presence of accompanying diseases, including peripheral arterial disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, hypertension, chronic kidney disease, neuropathy, and retinopathy. The mean follow-up period was 19.5 ± 4.45 months (range 12 to 28 months). Seventy-one (54.6%) patients received hyperbaric oxygen therapy, and 59 (45.4%) patients did not. All patients in Wagner grade 2 healed in both groups. In the group that received hyperbaric oxygen therapy for grade 3 and 4 patients, 35 (87.5%) and 11 (84.6%) healed, respectively. In total, 60 (84.5%) patients in the group that received hyperbaric oxygen therapy healed. The subgroup comparison conducted according to Wagner classification revealed no differences between the 2 groups of grades 2 and 5 patients. It also revealed that treatment had higher levels of efficacy in the healing of ulcers in grade 3 and 4 patients.

Level of Clinical Evidence: 3

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