A Critical Radiographic Analysis of Coronal Plane Deformity Correction Using a 3-Piece Mobile Bearing Ankle Joint Replacement: A Retrospective Study of 25 Patients

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Abstract

Total ankle replacement can be a viable option for patients with end-stage ankle arthritis associated with coronal plane deformity. With proper ankle balancing, a well-aligned ankle implant can be maintained over time and provide successful patient outcomes. The purpose of this study was to evaluate radiographic and subjective outcomes in patients with ankle arthritis along with coronal plane deformity who underwent total ankle arthroplasty with a 3-piece mobile-bearing implant. Our primary inclusion criterion was patients who demonstrated more than 5° of tibiotalar coronal deformity in either varus or valgus direction. Sixty-three consecutive patients who underwent total ankle replacement were reviewed. Of these, 25 (39.7%) met the inclusion criteria. Sixteen (64%) patients had a varus deformity (Group 1) and 9 (36%) had valgus deformity (Group 2) preoperatively. Alignment was evaluated radiographically at 5 different intervals: preoperative, immediate postoperative, and 6, 12, and 36 months postoperative. In patients with varus deformity, the mean tibiotalar angle was 12.6°, 0.8°, 1.0°,1.0°, and 0.8° for preoperative, immediate postoperative, and 6, 12, and 36 months, respectively. The same measurements and intervals for patients with valgus deformity were found to be 10.3°, 1.4°, 1.6°, 1.4°, and 1.4°. A statistically significant difference was observed in preoperative and postoperative coronal plane deformity. This correction was maintained at final follow-up visit. American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society scores and visual analogue scale scores were recorded as well, and statistically significant improvements in preoperative and postoperative scores were found (p < .001). In conclusion, coronal plane deformity correction of the ankle can be accomplished and maintained in total ankle replacement procedures with proper soft tissue balancing and osseous procedures as indicated.

Level of Clinical Evidence: 4

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