Optimal Electromechanical Reshaping of the Auricular Ear and Long-term Outcomes in an In Vivo Rabbit Model

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The prominent ear is a common external ear anomaly that is usually corrected through surgery. Electromechanical reshaping (EMR) may provide the means to reshape cartilage through the use of direct current (in milliamperes) applied percutaneously with needle electrodes and thus to reduce reliance on open surgery.


To determine the long-term outcomes (shape change, cell viability, and histology) of a more refined EMR voltage and time settings for reshaping rabbit auricle.

Design, Setting, and Subjects

The intact ears of 14 New Zealand white rabbits were divided into 2 groups. Group 1 received 4 V for 5 minutes (5 ears), 5 V for 4 minutes (5 ears), or no voltage for 5 minutes (control; 4 ears). Group 2 received an adjusted treatment of 4 V for 4 minutes (7 ears) or 5 V for 3 minutes (7 ears). A custom mold with platinum electrodes was used to bend the pinna and to perform EMR. Pinnae were splinted for 6 months along the region of the bend. Rabbits were killed humanely and the ears were harvested the day after splint removal. Data were collected from March 14, 2013, to July 8, 2014, and analyzed from August 29, 2013, to March 1, 2015.

Main Outcomes and Measures

Bend angle and mechanical behavior via palpation were recorded through photography and videography. Tissue was sectioned for histologic examination and confocal microscopy to assess changes to microscopic structure and cell viability.


Rabbits ranged in age from 6 to 8 months and weighed 3.8 to 4.0 g. The mean (SD) bend angles were 81° (45°) for the controls and, in the 5 EMR groups, 72° (29°) for 4 V for 4 minutes, 101° (19°) for 4 V for 5 minutes, 78° (18°) for 5 V for 3 minutes, and 126° (21°) for 5 V for 4 minutes. At 5 V, an increase in application time from 3 to 4 minutes provided significant shape change (78° [18°] and 126° [21°], respectively; P = .003). Pinnae stained with hematoxylin-eosin displayed localized areas of cell injury and fibrosis in and around electrode insertion sites. This circumferential zone of injury (range, 1.3-2.1 mm) corresponded to absence of red florescence on the cell viability assay.

Conclusions and Relevance

In this in vivo study, EMR produces shape changes in the intact pinnae of rabbits. A short application of 4 V or 5 V can achieve adequate reshaping of the pinnae. Tissue injury around the electrodes is modest in spatial distribution. This study provides a more optimal set of EMR variables and a critical step toward evaluation of EMR in clinical trials.

Level of Evidence


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