Gastric cancer has traditionally been staged using purely histological methods, but these methods provide little information about the biology of gastric cancer and have limited predictive power. Recent studies have shown that clinically relevant gastric cancer subtypes have distinct gene expression profiles. This approach, termed molecular staging, can lead to the discovery of novel diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers of gastric cancers. This update reviews advances in molecular staging of gastric cancer and discusses their implications for the prognosis and diagnosis of this complex disease. Technologies used in molecular staging as well as future directions for the optimization of molecular staging of gastric cancer are also discussed.