Hepatitis C recurrence after liver transplantation: Has the human leukocyte antigen mismatching at individual loci a role?

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Abstract

Background and Aim:

The objective of this 11-year cohort retrospective study conducted in adult patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) who underwent liver transplantation (LT) was to identify whether human leukocyte antigen (HLA) mismatching is associated with the recurrence of HCV and with the time to recurrence of HCV.

Methods:

Among the 181 patients (74% men; mean age: 54 years, range 25–71) who underwent a LT between 1995 and 2006 in the study center, 163 had relevant data in their medical chart documenting HCV recurrence, and 107 (65.64%) reported a histological evidence of HCV recurrence.

Results:

Survival was 78% at 5 years. There was no significant relationship between the total score of HLA-mismatches and the recurrence of HCV. Similarly, there was no significant relationship between the total score of HLA mismatches and the time to recurrence of HCV. For the analyses at each individual locus, a significant relationship between the individual scores of HLA-mismatches and the recurrence of HCV were observed. Out of the 40 patients who experienced a rejection, the rate of recurrence was not different according to the severity of the rejection (75% mild, 64% moderate and 64% for severe rejection).

Conclusions:

In conclusion, this large study did not demonstrate any relationship between the total score of HLA mismatches and HCV-recurrence. Contrarily a significant relationship between the individual scores of HLA mismatches (HLA-A3, HLA-B35, HLA-DR3, HLA-DR7, HLA-DQ2, HLA-DQ2-0) and the recurrence of HCV were observed.

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