AbstractBackground and Aim:
The high cost of chronic hepatitis C (HCV) direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) poses significant financial challenges for health payers, especially in Asia. A personalized treatment strategy based on individualized probability of virological response using oral DAAs as second-line therapy would seem practical but has not been studied.Methods:
We performed a Markov model to project health outcomes and costs for patients with genotype 1 HCV through 10 treatment strategies over a lifetime period. The implication of retreatment was also incorporated to reflect real-life situation.Results:
Using boceprevir and peginterferon/ribavirin (BOC/PR, the least costly treatment) as a base case, the all-oral therapies such as ombitasvir/paritaprevir/ritonavir-dasabuvir are cost-effective with an incremental cost-effective ratio of $US50 828. However, the all-oral DAAs would no longer be cost-effective compared with conventional therapies if retreatment were taken into account. A road map strategy using rapid virological response to guide use of BOC/PR and sofosbuvir/PR had the most favorable incremental cost-effective ratio ($US27 782) relative to BOC/PR. Nevertheless, the trade-off with the cost-effectiveness of the road map strategy is an increased number of liver-related deaths compared with all-oral DAAs (52 vs 10–20 per 10 000 patients) by incorporating retreatment.Conclusions:
The 12-week all-oral DAAs were cost-effective options using conventional drug-to-drug comparison. However, they cease to be cost-effective when treatment strategies incorporating DAA retreatment for interferon failures are incorporated. HCV management can be optimized by adopting individualized treatment algorithm providing a practical solution to health payers to make oral DAAs accessible to those who need them most.