Diurnal Intraocular Pressure Curves in Healthy Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta) and Rhesus Macaques With Normotensive and Hypertensive Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma

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Abstract

Purpose: The authors identify any diurnal intraocular pressure (IOP) variation in healthy Cayo Santiago macaques, as well as Cayo Santiago macaques with normotensive and hypertensive primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG), to further evaluate their potential value as a model for human POAG.

Methods: Twenty-four monkeys (eight animals each of the healthy control, normotensive glaucoma, and hypertensive glaucoma groups) were sedated with ketamine hydrochloride and the IOP measured hourly from 8:00 AM until 3:00 PM with a Tonopen™ XL applanation tonometer (Mentor®, Norwell, MA, U.S.A.). Mean IOP time profiles, mean IOPs at each observation time, and linear trends in mean IOP over time were compared among groups. Intraocular pressure rate-of-change over time and residual variation about the regression line for each individual eye were analyzed. Cup/disc ratio (C/D) was compared with baseline IOP, IOP profile mean and slope, and IOP residual variation.

Results: A significant group and time effect on mean IOP (p = 0.0001 and 0.011, respectively), with highest values at 2:00 PM or 3:00 PM, and a significant increasing linear trend in mean IOP over time in the hypertensive group were observed (p = 0.012). Intermediate readings between control and hypertensive mean IOPs were identified for the normotensive glaucoma group. The biggest range of IOP variation was found in the hypertensive glaucoma monkeys. Higher variations in IOP did not lead to an increase in C/D.

Conclusions: This study provides evidence that the Cayo Santiago macaques are a valuable model for human normotensive and hypertensive POAG.

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