Glaucoma Diagnostic Capabilities of Foveal Avascular Zone Parameters Using Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography According to Visual Field Defect Location

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Purpose:To assess the diagnostic ability of foveal avascular zone (FAZ) parameters to discriminate glaucomatous eyes with visual field defects (VFDs) in different locations (central vs. peripheral) from normal eyes.Patients and Methods:Totally, 125 participants were separated into 3 groups: normal (n=45), glaucoma with peripheral VFD (PVFD, n=45), and glaucoma with central VFD (CVFD, n=35). The FAZ area, perimeter, and circularity and parafoveal vessel density were calculated from optical coherence tomography angiography images. The diagnostic ability of the FAZ parameters and other structural parameters was determined according to glaucomatous VFD location. Associations between the FAZ parameters and central visual function were evaluated.Results:A larger FAZ area and longer FAZ perimeter were observed in the CVFD group than in the PVFD and normal groups. The FAZ area, perimeter, and circularity were better in differentiating glaucomatous eyes with CVFDs from normal eyes [areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUC), 0.78 to 0.88] than in differentiating PVFDs from normal eyes (AUC, 0.51 to 0.64). The FAZ perimeter had a similar AUC value to the circumpapillary retinal nerve fiber layer and macular ganglion cell-inner plexiform layer thickness for differentiating eyes with CVFDs from normal eyes (all P>0.05, the DeLong test). The FAZ area was significantly correlated with central visual function (β=−112.7, P=0.035, multivariate linear regression).Conclusions:The FAZ perimeter had good diagnostic capability in differentiating glaucomatous eyes with CVFDs from normal eyes, and may be a potential diagnostic biomarker for detecting glaucomatous patients with CVFDs.

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