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To describe the distribution of anterior chamber depth (ACD), anterior chamber volume (ACV), and anterior chamber angle (ACA) and establish the associated factors in the pediatric population in Shanghai, China.In this cross-sectional study, children aged 6 to 18 years from 9 primary and middle schools in Shanghai were enrolled. The Pentacam Scheimpflug camera was used to measure anterior eye chamber parameters. The distribution of ACD, ACV, ACA, and their associations with age, sex, body mass index, cycloplegic refractive error, axial length, intraocular pressure, and other parameters were analyzed.A total of 1321 children were included, with a mean age of 9.65±2.95 years. The mean ACA, ACD, and ACV values were 37.95±7.96 degrees, 3.22±0.23 mm and 194.89±28.95 mm3, respectively, and were higher in boys than in girls. ACV and ACD had similar growth trend curves with age, whereas ACA was stable. Overall, 5% of the tested children had ACA values ≤24.91 degrees. Greater ACV, deeper ACD, shorter pupil diameter, shorter axial length, and thinner apex corneal thickness were the independent factors associated with wider ACA (R2=13.0%, P<0.001).As one of diagnostic indicators of angle closure, ACA was stable with age. The results of this study should improve the current understanding of the distribution of anterior chamber parameters and the main factors affecting their variation.