Reference Values for the Timed Up and Go Test: A Descriptive Meta-Analysis

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Background and Purpose:

The Timed Up and Go (TUG) test is widely employed in the examination of elders, but definitive normative reference values are lacking. This meta-analysis provided such values by consolidating data from multiple studies.


Studies reporting TUG times for apparently healthy elders were identified through the on-line search of bibliographic databases. Study specifics and data were consolidated and examined for homogeneity.


Twenty-one studies were included in the meta-analysis. The mean (95% confidence interval) TUG time for individuals at least 60 years of age was 9.4 (8.9–9.9) seconds. Although the data contributing to this mean were homogeneous, data for individuals who could be categorized by age were more homogeneous. The mean (95% confidence intervals) for 3 age groups were: 8.1 (7.1–9.0) seconds for 60 to 69 year olds, 9.2 (8.2–10.2) seconds for 70 to 79 years, and 11.3 (10.0–12.7) seconds for 80 to 99 years.


The reference values presented, though obtained from studies with clear differences, provide a standard to which patient performance can be compared. Patients whose performance exceeds the upper limit of reported confidence intervals can be considered to have worse than average performance.

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