Single-Base Substitution in P1B-ATPase Gene Is Associated with a Major QTL for Seed Cadmium Concentration in Soybean

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Cadmium (Cd) is a pollutant metal present in soils and toxic to biologic organisms. Previous studies using recombinant inbred lines derived from a cross between soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr.) cultivars Harosoy and Fukuyutaka revealed a major quantitative trait loci for seed Cd concentration (cd1) in chromosome 9. The genome sequence of Williams 82 suggested that a P1B-ATPase gene involved in the transport of metals was located in the vicinity of cd1. cDNA sequencing suggested existence of two types of transcripts: one (GmHMA1a) consisting of 9 exons and 8 introns and the other (GmHMA1b) consisting of 8 exons and 7 introns. The putative polypeptide, GmHMA1a, consisted of 885 amino acids, whereas premature termination of translation of GmHMA1b generated a putative polypeptide with 559 amino acids. GmHMA1a had a 49.8% similarity with AtHMA3, a P1B-ATPase of Arabidopsis. GmHMA1a of Fukuyutaka differed from that of Harosoy by a single-base substitution that led to an amino acid substitution from E to G at amino acid position 608. A derived cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence (dCAPS) marker was developed to detect the base substitution, and this dCAPS marker was successfully associated with seed Cd concentration. Transgenic experiments may be necessary to verify that GmHMA1 actually corresponds to cd1.

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