Sturgeons (family Acipenseridae) are one of the most endangered groups of animals. Two hundred million years of evolution and multiple ploidy levels make this group a unique subject for studying the evolution of polyploidy in animals. As most sturgeon species have gone through significant functional diploidization, 2 scales of ploidy levels can be distinguished: the “evolutionary scale,” which indicates the maximum ploidy level achieved and the “recent scale,” which indicates the current functional ploidy level. This study analyzes published and new microsatellites to check the ploidy level and to determine the degrees of functional diploidization in 10 sturgeon species from Europe and Asia. We screened 50 primer pairs newly developed for Acipenser gueldenstaedtii and 40 primer pairs previously developed in other studies for other sturgeon species. The maximal number of alleles per individual of a given species was assessed at 20 microsatellite loci, which showed consistent amplification in most of the 10 analyzed species. Taken together, our data on the percentage of disomic loci in different species suggest that functional diploidization is an ongoing process in sturgeons. We observed lower levels of diploidization in tetraploid species from the Atlantic clade than in the species from the Pacific clade, which can be explained by the more recent genome duplication in tetraploid species from the Atlantic clade. Based on the recent findings and results of this study, we propose that the evolution of sturgeons has been affected by at least 3 different polyploidization events.