It is crucial that palliative care nurses feel competent to practice their profession in accordance with ethical principles, to personalize care, to remain sensitive, to ensure respect, and to communicate effectively. The aim of this study was to verify that higher levels of perceived professional competency predict better individual and organizational outcomes, such as job satisfaction and organizational citizenship behavior. An online cross-sectional survey was conducted with 107 Italian palliative care nurses. Structural equation modeling technique was used for data analysis. The model fitted the data well. Professional competency was positively associated with both job satisfaction (β = 0.39) and organizational citizenship behavior (β = 0.53). The more confidence palliative care nurses have in their professional competency, the more they are satisfied with their job and engage in organizational citizenship behavior. Fostering professional competency in palliative nursing can help not only patients and their families but also the nurses themselves, the organization, and their coworkers.