This randomized clinical trial compared frequencies of exclusive breastfeeding and lactation-related problems during the first 30 days among 74 mothers who received a 30-minute counseling session on breastfeeding technique in the maternity ward, and 137 controls. The frequency of exclusive breastfeeding among mothers who had received intervention was similar to controls by 7 days (79.7% vs 82.5%, respectively) and 30 days (60.8% vs 53.3%). There was no difference between groups in the frequency of sore nipples at 7 and 30 days, in breast engorgement and mastitis, and in the quality of breastfeeding technique at 30 days. Therefore, a single intervention at maternity was not sufficient to improve breastfeeding technique, increase exclusive breastfeeding rates, and reduce the incidence of breastfeeding problems during the first month. J Hum Lact. 22(3):315–321.