Characteristics of a community-based distribution of home blood pressure in Ohasama in northern Japan

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Abstract

Objective:

To evaluate the distribution, reference values and day-to-day variation of blood pressure of untreated subjects measured at home

Design:

Cross-sectional study of a cohort

Setting:

General community in northern Japan

Subjects:

Blood pressure was measured in 871 subjects (mean±SD age 46.0±19.5 years, range 7-98, constituting 38.7% of the local population of Uchikawama region, Ohasama) who were not receiving antihypertensive medication

Methods:

Subjects measured their own blood pressure at home at least three times (mean±SD 19.718.4) each morning using a semi-automatic oscillometric blood pressure measuring device. Screening blood pressure was measured once. Main outcome measures: Distribution of home blood pressure in the study population as a whole and with respect to age and sex, and the distribution of day-to-day variation of home blood pressure were determined

Results:

Mean home blood pressure was 117.3±13.4/69.3±9.7mmHg (95% confidence interval 116.4-118.2/68.7-70.0). The 95th centile value was 143/85 mmHg, mean + SD 131/79 mmHg and mean + 2SD 144/89 mmHg. Mean screening blood pressure was 126.2 ±18.9/72.1 ±11.7 mmHg (95th centile 159/92 mmHg). Age- and sex-specific 95th centile values as well as mean±SD were obtained. Mean + SD, mean + 2SD and the 95th centile values obtained as reference upper limits of home blood pressure from subjects identified as normotensive by screening blood pressure (n=707) were 125/77, 137/86 and 134/83 mmHg, respectively. Home blood pressure increased gradually with increasing age in both men and women, although blood pressure was significantly higher in men until 50 years of age. Day-to-day variation of home systolic blood pressure also increased with age

Conclusions:

Since the distribution of home blood pressure values was affected by age and sex, age- and sex-matched reference values for home blood pressure should be established. Home blood pressure values in elderly subjects should be evaluated carefully, since these exhibit greater day-to-day variation

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