Lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor-1 (LOX-1) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) may play key roles in atherosclerosis, and have been shown to regulate nitric oxide (NO) production. However, the molecular mechanisms by which betaxolol, a specific ß1-antagonist, stimulates endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) expression associated with LOX-1 and VEGF are unclear. We hypothesized that in the left ventricle of Dahl salt-sensitive (DS) rats, betaxolol reduces production of LOX-1 by suppressing NAD(P)H oxidase p47phox expression; betaxolol stimulates eNOS production associated with expression of VEGF and LOX-1; and betaxolol inhibits adhesion molecule and signal transduction, which may be involved in cardiovascular remodeling.Methods
After 5 weeks of feeding an 8% NaCl diet to 6-week-old DS rats (i.e. at 11 weeks of age), a distinct stage of concentric left ventricular hypertrophy was noted. Betaxolol (0.9 mg/kg per day) was administered to 6-week-old DS rats for 5 weeks until the onset of left ventricular hypertrophy stage.Results
Decreased expression of eNOS and VEGF in DS rats was increased by betaxolol. Upregulated LOX-1, NAD(P)H oxidase p47phox, intercellular and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 expression and phosphorylations of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and p65 nuclear factor-κB activity were inhibited by betaxolol. Betaxolol administration resulted in significant improvement of cardiovascular remodeling and suppression of transforming growth factor-β1 and type I collagen expression.Conclusions
These results suggest that cardioprotective effects of betaxolol may stimulate eNOS production associated with VEGF and LOX-1, and inhibit adhesion molecule and signal transduction in DS rats.