To investigate the prevalence and progression of, and identify risk factors for, pre-hypertension, stage 1 and 2 hypertension in a population-based study.Design
A prospective cohort study.Setting
An integrated community-based multiple screening program in Keelung, Taiwan.Participants
A total of 67 011 individuals aged 20–79 years between 1999 and 2003 were included. Of these, 22 111 re-attended, yielding 53 689 repeated recordings of blood pressure, including movement between normal and pre-hypertension and progression from pre-hypertension to stage 1 or stage 2 hypertension.Main outcome measures
Blood pressure was defined and classified according to the JNC 7 Report as normal, pre-hypertension, stage 1, and stage 2 hypertension.Results
Below 50 years of age, males had a higher progression rate, particularly from normal to pre-hypertension, than females. Annual regression rates from pre-hypertension to normal were higher in the young age group than in the old age group, particularly for females. Factors associated with the occurrence of pre-hypertension were old age, male gender, high waist circumference, abnormal blood lipids, smoking, chewing betel nuts, lack of exercise, and having parents with hypertension. Factors associated with regression from pre-hypertension to normal were body mass index, fasting glucose, high-density lipoprotein level, smoking, and parents with hypertension. Progression from pre-hypertension to stage 1 hypertension was positively related to male gender, higher waist circumference, and having parents with hypertension.Conclusions
The rates of progression and regression of hypertension vary with age and gender, anthropometric and biochemical measurements, and family history.