Renal protection in diabetic patients: benefits of a first-line combination of perindopril–indapamide (Preterax®)

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Abstract

Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is often accompanied by high blood pressure (BP) and the clustering of several cardiovascular risk factors, and is the most frequent cause of end-stage renal disease. The stages of development of overt nephropathy in T2DM patients range from an initial alteration in renal function with an increased GFR, followed by the development of microalbuminuria and macroalbuminuria or proteinuria, featuring an established diabetic nephropathy, which eventually progresses to end-stage renal disease. Early intervention is needed to prevent the development of diabetic nephropathy and requires effective control of the different risk factors, and in particular high BP. In the initial stages of the disease, strict BP control is crucial to prevent the development of initial renal and vascular damage. Adequate BP control is particularly difficult in T2DM patients and in most cases requires the use of combination therapy. Preterax®, a fixed-dose combination of perindopril 2 mg and indapamide 0.625 mg, allows BP to be significantly reduced compared with conventional strategies; this combination can be uptitrated to BiPreterax® when further BP control is needed. In the PREMIER study performed in T2DM over 12 months, the perindopril/indapamide combination brought about, in addition to excellent BP control, a significant reduction in urinary albumin excretion, compared with monotherapy with enalapril. In more advanced degrees of renal damage, higher doses of the fixed combination have to be considered. The pharmacological basis of the renoprotective effect of perindopril/indapamide is the demonstration that this combination prevented nephropathy as well as proteinuria in obese Zucker rats, independently of BP control. Strict BP control from the initial stages of nephropathy together with inhibition of the renin–angiotensin system is mandatory to prevent albuminuria. The fixed combination of perindopril/indapamide can greatly help clinicians in achieving the above goals, using Preterax® in the early and BiPreterax® in the late stages of nephropathy.

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