Evaluation of risk for incident hypertension using glomerular filtration rate in the normotensive general population

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Abstract

Objectives:

The present study tested the hypothesis that glomerular filtration rate can predict the onset of hypertension in individuals with normal blood pressure in the general population.

Methods:

Normotensive individuals (n = 7684) who visited our hospital for a routine physical examination were enrolled in the study (4907 men; mean age 52.1 ± 11.1 years) and were followed up with the endpoint being the development of hypertension. The relationship between estimated glomerular filtration rate at baseline and the incidence of hypertension was evaluated.

Results:

During the follow-up period (median 4.0 years; actual follow-up 30 624 person-years), hypertension developed in 2031 participants (66.3 per 1000 person-years). After adjustment for possible risk factors, the hazard ratio of incident hypertension (first tertile as reference) in the second and third tertiles was 1.03 (95% confidence interval 0.92–1.16) and 1.40 (95% confidence interval 1.26–1.57), respectively. Multivariate Cox proportional hazard regression analysis, in which estimated glomerular filtration rate was taken as a continuous variable and adjustments were made for known risk factors, also indicated that baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate independently predicted the onset of hypertension (P < 0.0001). Furthermore, multiple regression analysis revealed that a longitudinal increase in SBP was significantly associated with baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate after adjustment for known risk factors (P < 0.01).

Conclusion:

Estimated glomerular filtration rate in normotensive individuals is a good predictor of the onset of hypertension in the general population.

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