Evidence shows that a sodium intake between 3 g per day and 6 g per day was associated with the lowest risk of death and cardiovascular events in global population. However, the optimal range of sodium intake for cardiovascular health in China is still controversial.Design and method
: We enrolled individuals from 115 urban and rural communities in 12 areas across China mainland. Trained local staff recorded baseline information from 43034 participants with interview-based questionnaires, and obtained morning fasting urine samples to estimated 24-hour sodium (used as a surrogate for intake). We examined the association between estimated urinary sodium excretion and the composite outcome of death and major cardiovascular events in Chinese population.Results
: The mean estimated sodium excretion was 5.84 g per day. With a median follow-up of 4.00 years, the composite outcome occurred in 916 (2.13%) participants, of which 597 (1.39%) died and 476 (1.11%) suffered from cardiovascular diseases. As compared with an estimated sodium excretion of 5.00 to 6.99 g per day (reference range), a higher estimated sodium excretion (3 8.00 g per day) was associated with an increased but not significant risk of the composite outcome (odds ratio, 1.15; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.82 to 1.61), as well as that with an estimated sodium excretion below 4.00 g per day (odds ratio, 1.21; 95% CI, 0.93 to 1.58). We recorded similar trend in death, but major cardiovascular events had a different tendency.Conclusions:
An estimated sodium intake between 4 g per day and 7 g per day was associated with a lower risk of death and cardiovascular events in China. The recommended daily intake of sodium is 1 g larger than that suggested by former study, because Asian people, especially Chinese, generally eat more salt than other countries, and the tolerance of sodium may be higher.