To compare the prevalence of healthy lifestyle behaviors between individuals with and without cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases from urban and rural areas in China.Design and Method:
Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiology (PURE) was a large prospective cohort study, enrolling participants aged 35–70 years, from 70 rural and 45 urban communities in China between 2005 and 2009. Individuals were eligible if they had complete information on four behaviors including smoking status, drinking status, physical activity and dietary pattern as well as on history of diseases mainly consisting of diabetes, hypertension, coronary heart disease, heart failure and stroke. Participants with a cardiovascular or cerebrovascular disease were allocated to the event group while those without any disease were treated as control group. Based on urban per capita annual disposable income and rural per capita net income respectively, urban and rural areas were divided into high- and low-income regions. Proportions were adjusted for age, sex, education level and income level as appropriate. The generalized, linear mixed-effect model was applied to take into account the effect of clustering.Results:
Overall, 40,490 participants were involved. The rates of smoking cessation and quitting drinking were significantly higher in event group (P < .05), no matter in urban or rural areas. While the prevalence of high level physical activity was lower in event group among rural residents (P < .05). In urban areas, the proportions of smoking cessation, quitting drinking and healthy eating in both groups were higher in low-income regions (P < .05 for trend). The proportions of smoking cessation and quitting drinking showed the similar trend in rural areas (P < .05 for trend). However, the prevalence of healthy eating rose by increasing the income level among rural residents (P < .05 for trend).Conclusions:
The prevalence of adopting healthy lifestyle behaviors was low, despite higher proportion among individuals with CVDs than healthy ones. People from high-income regions showed lower prevalence.