The detrimental effects of restoration of coronary blood flow following an acute myocardial infarction is a major concern as reperfusion predisposes to myocardial injury. Kaempferol (KMP), a naturally occurring polyphenolic compound, present in tea, broccoli, propolis and grapefruit, possesses anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic, anti-cancer, neuroprotective, cardioprotective and anti-diabetic properties. Therefore in the present study, we aimed to investigate the effect of kaempferol in ischemia-reperfusion (IR) model of myocardial injury in rats.Design and Method:
Male albino wistar rats were used for the study. They were divided into sham, IR-control, KMP-20+IR and KMP 20 per se groups. KMP was administered daily to the rats at a dose of 20 mg/kg intraperitoneally for a period of 15 days. On the 15th day, ischemia was produced by one-stage ligation of left anterior descending coronary artery for 45 minutes followed by reperfusion for 60 minutes. Rats were sacrificed after completion of surgery and the heart was excised and processed for biochemical, morphological and molecular studies.Results:
KMP pretreatment significantly attenuated IR injury by maintaining cardiac function, normalizing oxidative stress and preserving morphological alterations. Also, there was a decrease in the level of inflammatory markers (TNF-α, IL-6 and NFκB), inhibition of active JNK and p38 proteins and activation of ERK1/2, a pro-survival kinase. Furthermore, it also ameliorated apoptosis by reducing the expression of pro-apoptotic proteins (Bax and Caspase-3), TUNEL positive cells and increasing the level of anti-apoptotic proteins (Bcl-2).Conclusions:
KMP protects against IR injury by attenuating inflammation and apoptosis through modulation of MAPK pathway and amelioration of the redox state of the myocardium.