To measure the prevalence of hypertension, prehypertension and their association with risk factors and socio- economic correlates.Design and Method:
We conducted a representative population based cross-sectional survey, as part of a large community intervention study entitled UDAY, among 12245 participants aged ≥ 30 years residing in rural and urban areas of North (Sonipat, Haryana) and South (Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh) India. Participants were selected using a multistage cluster random sampling technique. Trained health workers collected the data using an interviewer administered questionnaire, obtained three blood pressure readings, conducted body measurements and collected bio-samples. Hypertension and prehypertension were defined according to standard definitions. Their association with risk factors and socio- economic correlates were measured using multinomial logistic regression models.Results:
The overall age-standardized prevalence of hypertension was 28.2% (95% CI: 27.4%-29.0%) and prehypertension was 29.9% (29.1%-30.8%). Alcohol consumption [Adjusted Relative Risk Ratio (ARRR): 1.5 (95% CI: 1.3–1.8)] and [ARRR: 1.3 (1.1–1.5)], overweight [ARRR: 1.5 (1.3–1.8)] and [ARRR: 1.4 (1.2–1.6)], obesity [ARRR: 2.4 (1.9–2.9)] and [ARRR: 1.8 (1.5–2.2)], diabetes [ARRR: 2.4 (2.0–2.9)] and [ARRR: 1.6 (1.3–1.9)] and dyslipidemia [ARRR: 1.4 (1.2–1.5)] and [ARRR: 1.16 (1.03–1.29)] were more likely to be associated with both hypertension and prehypertension respectively. Participants reporting vigorous physical activity [ARRR: 0.8 (0.7–0.9)] and consuming ≥ 5 servings of fruits and vegetables [ARRR: 0.9 (0.8–0.9)] were at lower risk of having hypertension only. Among socio- economic correlates, participants who were male, had urban residence, were older and had education below graduate level, were at higher risk of having both hypertension and prehypertension.Conclusions:
There is a high burden of both hypertension and prehypertension in India. Tailored strategies to control alcohol intake, overweight/obesity, blood glucose, and lipids as well as promotion of healthier lifestyles to increase consumption of fruits and vegetables and physical activity are required.