Tobacco consumption contributes substantially to cardiovascular (CV) diseases, including hypertension. However, the effect of waterpipe (WP) smoking on CV hemodynamics in adolescents is unknown. Thus, the current study investigated the relationship of WP smoking with CV indices in 397 adolescents that included WP only smokers (n = 161) and nonsmokers of WP or any other tobacco product (n = 236).Design and Method:
Cardiovascular hemodynamic Indices including heart rate (HR), systolic (SBP), and diastolic (DBP) blood pressures, mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), pulse pressure (PP) and rate pressure product (RPP) were obtained and calculated for 7th-10th grade students in Irbid, Jordan.Results:
After controlling for possible confounding factors, HR, DBP, MAP, and RPP were significantly lower (p < 0.05) in adolescent WP smokers versus nonsmokers. Additionally, stepwise regression analyses showed that smoking status can predict (p < 0.000) 5.7% of HR, 6.3% of DBP 7.4% of MAP and 7.0% RPP.Conclusions:
The results indicate for the first time that WP smoking lowers CV hemodynamics among adolescent WP smokers. Further studies are needed to confirm this finding and understand the mechanism of this effect.