Cardio ankle vascular index (CAVI) represents arterial stiffness of the aorta, femoral artery and tibial artery. We investigated whether annual change of CAVI is related to the onset of retinal abnormality on optic fundus.Design and Method:
Subjects were 1,148 (male 47.4%) urban residents who participated in cardiovascular disease (CVD) screening in Japan during 2005- 2011. All subjects had normal finding of optic fundus at first health check and had not received medical treatment for CVD risk factor during this study. Annual change of cardio-ankle vascular index (ΔCAVI) was obtained by cox hazard ratio from least-square method for three years by each year. Several atherosclerosis risk factors were also studied. Eye examination was defined with Scheie classification.Results:
Subjects were devised into two groups, normal group (group A) (n = 1,103, male 46.5%) and new onset of Scheie H1-4 and/or S1-4 group (group B) (n = 45, male 68.9%). In first health check data, creatinine and high-density cholesterol are not different but age, body mass index, systolic blood pressure (sBP), diastolic pressure, triglyceride (TG) and CAVI were higher in group B than that of group A regardless of gender. Comparison with two groups in change of CVD risk factors for three years revealed that ΔsBP and age were selected as independent contributing factor for abnormal change of optic fundus in male, and age, ΔsBP, ΔTG, and ΔCAVI were selected as independent contributing factor for abnormal change of optic fundus in female. ΔCAVI was much more significant than CAVI at the beginning in female.Conclusions:
We demonstrated predictive value of CVD risk factors and CAVI for new onset of abnormal findings on optic fundus. There are gender differences regarding effect on optic fundus by change of CVD risk factor and CAVI.