Recently, the favorable effects of coffee consumption on atherosclerotic diseases have been discussed. We have reported that coffee consumption was inversely associated with metabolic syndrome, and higher heart rate was strongly associated with all-cause mortality. We hypothesized that higher coffee consumption may reduce resting heart rate and may decrease all-cause death.Design and Method:
A total of 1,920 residents aged over 40 years (794 males and 1,126 females) recruited from a population-based survey. We measured components of metabolic syndrome (blood pressure, waist circumference, fasting plasma glucose, and lipid profiles) and eating and drinking patterns were evaluated by a food frequency questionnaire. Resting heart rate was measured using a 12-lead electrocardiogram.Results:
Of 1,920 subjects, information on dietary habits was obtained from 1,902 subjects (785 men and 1,117 women). Significant relationships were found between heart rate and coffee consumption (p = 0.004 for trend). Furthermore, we followed these subjects for 15 years. During the periods, 343 of the participants died (102 subjects died of cancer, 48 of cerebro-cardiovascular diseases, and 44 of infectious diseases). Multivariate analyses after adjustments for confounding factors revealed that higher coffee consumption is inversely associated with all-cause death (p < 0.05).Conclusions:
Our prospective study indicates that coffee consumption was associated with lower mortality possibly due to a reduction in resting heart rate in a population of community-dwelling Japanese.