Transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) is a multifunctional cytokine. There is evidence that TGF-β1 is involved in the pathogenesis of hypertension and the development of hypertensive target organ damage. However, most large scale cross-sectional studies in humans have indicated no relationship between plasma TGF-β1 levels and hypertension. The present study was designed to determine whether elevated TGF-β1 levels predict the development of hypertension.Design and Method:
In 2002–2004, in a fishing community in southwestern Japan (Uku town), a total of 528 people received a health examination. We examined blood pressure, body mass index (BMI) and blood chemistries. Data on fasting plasma TGF-β1 were obtained from 528 individuals. Of these, 149 normotensives (blood pressure <140/90 mmHg without anti-hypertensive medications) at baseline were followed-up during over ten years.Results:
Of 149 normotensives at baseline, 59 subjects developed hypertension. We divided the baseline plasma TGF-β1 levels into tertiles. The odds ratio [1.126 (95% CI, 0.461–2.752)] for the development of hypertension after 10 years was not statistically significant in the highest tertiles vs. the lowest tertiles of plasma TGF-β1 level after adjustment for confounding factors. However, a significant trend (p = 0.018 for trend) was found among the three groups.Conclusions:
Elevated plasma TGF-β1 levels predicted the development of hypertension in normotensives in community-dwelling Japanese.