To assess the prevalence, obesity and relationship with other cardiovascular risk factors in individuals of 25 to 64 y residents in seven Latin American Cities.Design and Method:
CARMELA study was a cross-sectional, population-based observational study using a multistage sampling where a group of 11550 subjects from 7 participant cities: Barquisimeto, Venezuela (n = 1848); Bogotá, Colombia (n = 1553); Buenos Aires, Argentina (n = 1482); Lima, Peru (n = 1652); Mexico City, Mexico (n = 1722); Quito, Ecuador (n = 1638); and Santiago, Chile (n = 1655). Body Mass Index was classified as under/normal weight (BMI: ≤ 25 kg/m2), overweight (BMI: 25–29.9 kg/m2), obesity grade I (BMI: 30–34.9 kg/m2), obesity grade II (BMI:35–39.9 kg/m2), obesity grade III (BMI: ≥ 40 kg/m2).Results:
BMI (kg/m2) was in average in the total subjects in 27.1, being 28.2 for Mexico City and 26.3 for Bogota, Buenos Aires and Quito. In overall 23.5 (22.4–24.7) % have obesity; 40.6% present overweight and 35.9% are normal or underweight subjects. Mexico City, Santiago and Barquisimeto have the higher prevalence of obesity (31%, 26.6%, 25.1%, respectively), meanwhile Quito (16.3%), Bogota (18.0%), Buenos Aires (19.7%) and Lima (22.3%) are lower prevalence of obesity. Prevalence of diabetes mellitus is three time as high in obesity vs normal subjects (4.3% vs 12.1%); prevalence of hypertension is 29.8% in obese versus 8.2% in normal subjects. Hypercholesterolemia is two time as frequent in obese (18.2 vs. 9.1%) and HDL-cholesterol is lower in obese.Conclusions:
Obesity, evaluated by BMI, are present in 23.5% of the adult urban population of LA, increase with age and it is more prevalent in women. Prevalence of hypertension; diabetes mellitus and dyslipidemia are two to three times more frequent in obese subjects.