The aim of this study was to obtain epidemiological data and to determine the prevalence of adolescent hypertension and factors influencing blood pressure (BP).Design and Method:
We performed a cross-sectional, population-based survey in a Hungarian city (Debrecen, population 230,000). After 10-min resting period, three consecutive BP measurements were taken and subjects filled out a questionnaire.Results:
Complete records were obtained for 10.194 subjects (5163 boys, 5031 girls; mean age: 16.6 ± 1.0 years). BP for boys was higher than for girls (ΔBPsyst = 11.3mmHg; ΔBPdiast = 2.2mmHg, p < 0.001). A significant decrease was observed in BP during the three consecutive measurements (ΔBP 4/2.5 mmHg). Systolic and/or diastolic BP exceeded the age-, gender- and height-adjusted 90th percentile in 1614 adolescents. Following two times three extra BP measurements, hypertension (systolic and/or diastolic BP exceeded the 95th percentile) was 2.53% in 15–18 year old adolescents.Results:
There was a positive correlation between weight and BP (rsyst = 0.42, rdiast = 0.29), height and BP (rsyst = 0.33, rdiast = 0.15), BMI and BP (rsyst = 0.31, rdiast = 0.27). Multiple regression analysis was used for statistical analysis. Gender ( = 0.36), BMI ( = 0.25), hypertension of parents (father = 0.04 and mother = 0.02), smoking, alcohol consumption and age determined systolic outcomes in descending order. For the diastolic model, BMI remained a strong determining factor ( = 0.25) and gender was also significant ( = −0.09). Entering independents together accounted for 28.2% of the total variance in systolic and for 18.1% in diastolic BP.Conclusions:
Our population-based study was the first to determine the point-prevalence of adolescent hypertension in Central-Eastern Europe. Body weight is central to determining BP. Because that is an alterable cardiovascular risk factor, we presume that lifestyle modification will not only result in reduced weight, but also in decreased BP.