To evaluate the prevalence, patterns and associated factors of left ventricular dysfunction (LVD) in hypertensive versus normotensive adults without cardiac symptoms.Design and Method:
A cross-sectional analytical study. Fifty consecutive hypertensive adults (HTN+) and another fifty normotensive, age and sex matched adults (HTN-) were enrolled from the medical clinics of Jos University Teaching Hospital. Relevant history, physical examination (including blood pressure measured according to standard guidelines), laboratory specimen (fasting plasma sugar and lipids, urea, creatinine and haemoglobin concentration) and electrocardiogram were obtained from the participants. Thereafter electrocardiography guided echocardiograph assessment of LV function was performed on each participant. Data was interpreted and subsequently analyzed using Epi info version 7 statistical software; p value < 0.05 was considered significant.Results:
There were 27 females and 23 males in each of the two groups. The mean ages were 49 ± 8 and 47 ± 7 years respectively (p=0.48). The comparison of mean values of the systolic and diastolic parameters measured is shown (table 1). The systolic parameters showed statistically significant differences for both genders. The HTN+ group had lower mean values of systolic parameters for both genders. Similarly, the HTN+ group had a higher prevalence of LVD compared to the HTN- group (30% versus 14%, p = 0.05). In addition, the HTN+ group had worse diastolic patterns (figure 1). In the HTN+ group, duration of hypertension and left atrial diameter correlated significantly with the systolic parameters. Both further emerged as independent predictors of LVD on regression analysis. In the HTN- group, older age and left atria diameter correlated significantly with systolic and diastolic parameters. They also emerged as independent predictors on multivariate regression analysis (Data not shown).Conclusions:
Left ventricular dysfunction is common in hypertensives without cardiac symptoms. Early diagnosis with prompt treatment will significantly reduce morbidity and mortality in these patients.