Both the absolute value of blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) and the degree of their variability are associated with cardiovascular mortality and morbidity. To investigate whether the time series patterns of BP, HR and sympathetic tone are associated with various clinical variables that are related to cardiovascular dysfunction.Design and Method:
The present study involved total 989 patients who underwent simultaneous 24hr ambulatory BP monitoring and Holter monitoring. They were grouped according to the pattern of time series measurement using a consensus clustering method for each of measured parameters, i.e. systolic BP, diastolic BP, HR and sympathetic tone. Then, associations between each group and clinical variables were evaluated.Results:
Our study revealed substantial associations of: (1) time series patterns of BP, HR and sympathetic tone with age; and (2) time series patterns of sympathetic tone with metabolic indicators, i.e. presence of diabetes mellitus (DM), body mass index (BMI), plasma apolipoprotein (Apo) B level, serum cholesterol level and serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) level.Conclusions:
Time series patterns of BP and HR can serve as an indicator of aging and those of sympathetic tone can serve as an indicator of both aging and metabolic abnormalities.