Atherosclerosis has been known as the hallmark of cardiovascular diseases. It involves inflammation, oxidative stress and endothelial dysfunction, which stimulate cytokines and other biomarkers. Ganoderma lucidum is a mushroom that is known for its numerous pharmacological effects such as anti-tumour, immunomodulator, antioxidant, anti-diabetic and anti-lipid. This study was aimed to evaluate the effects of polysaccharide peptides (PSP) of Ganoderma lucidum on circulating endothelial cells (CECs), endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) and nitric oxide (NO) as the hallmark of endothelial vascular injury; and TNF alpha and IL-6 as inflammatory markers.Design and method:
This is a prospective study with pre- and post-test design that involves 34 patients with stable angina and 37 high-risk patients according to Framingham Risk Score and they were given PSP 750 mg/day in divided dose for 3 months as adjuvant therapy to their previous medications. The primary endpoint is the level of CEC and EPC after treatment. We also evaluate lipid profile, TNF alpha, IL-6, and NO concentrations.Results:
The levels of CEC and EPC significantly reduced in stable angina patients (p = 0.000) and high-risk patients (p = 0.000). The levels of TNF alpha and IL-6 also decreased significantly after PSP administration, interestingly followed by the level of NO. Total cholesterol level reduced from 205.49 ± 48.49 mg/dl to 182.11 ± 73.81 mg/dl (p = 0.081) and LDL reduced from 126.17 ± 38.87 mg/dl to 116.17 ± 54.16 mg/dl (p = 0.268) in patients with stable angina. The same reduction also occurs in high-risk patients, where the level of total cholesterol (p = 0.193) and LDL cholesterol (p = 0.580) decreased after 3-month treatment.Conclusions:
Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharide peptides have a potent protective vascular effect and anti-lipid in stable angina pectoris and promising as adjuvant therapy on the treatment of atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases.