The purpose of this study is to examine the trends in dietary sodium and potassium intakes in China from 2000 to 2015, in order to provide scientific evidence for the establishment of effective strategies and measures for the prevention and control of chronic diseases.Design and Method:
We searched PubMed, CNKI, Wei Pu and Wan Fang databases, and included the published literature providing dietary sodium and potassium intakes of Chinese population, which were national or regional representative with the study period between 2000 and 2015. Then we estimated the dietary sodium and potassium intakes by region, sex and time period.Results:
A total of 57 articles (n = 132,296) were included in the present review, 52 of which (n = 124,301) using dietary recall method, and 5 (n = 7,995) using 24-hour urinary estimation. The results showed that there was significant difference in distributions of sex, ethnicity, time period, and region for dietary sodium intakes. During the past 15 years, the intake of dietary sodium decreased, while the change of potassium intake was small. During the period of 2010–2015, the dietary sodium intake in Chinese people using 24-hour urinary estimation was about 5403.5 mg, equal to 13.51 g salt; the dietary sodium and potassium intakes estimated by dietary recall method were 5650.9 mg (equal to 14.13 g salt) and 1827.9 mg, respectively.Conclusions:
Currently, dietary sodium intake for Chinese people is still much high, which is more than twice as the recommended intake by World Health Organization (WHO) (5 g/d). Meanwhile, potassium intake is much low, far below the recommended intake by WHO (3.51 g/d). Chinese government should develop a long-term strategy for salt restriction, such as promoting the use of salt spoon and low sodium salt, encouraging people to increase the intakes of vegetables and fruits, thereby reducing the risk of chronic diseases especially cardiovascular diseases in China.