We aimed to study arterial stiffness using pulse wave velocity (PWV) among patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) stage 2 to 4 and normal renal function in younger-age population.Design and Method:
Patients with confirmed CKD stage 2 to 4 were recruited from various clinics from Universiti Teknologi MARA Medical Center, Sungai Buloh, Malaysia from 1st August 2015 until 31st January 2016. Sociodemographic and anthropometric indices were recorded on recruitment. Each patient underwent carotid-femoral (aortic) PWV measurement to determine arterial stiffness. PWV is determined using a one-probe device (SphygmoSore XCEL).Results:
87 patients with CKD stage 2–4 and 87 control patients were recruited. The mean age was 47 + 5.4 years. CKD patients had a higher mean PWV (7.8 m/s + 1.7) than healthy controls (5.6 m/s + 1.0) (p < 0.001, 95% CI −2.59, −1.77). There was significant difference of mean PWV between control (5.6 m/s + 1.0) and CKD stage 2 (7.6 m/s + 1.5) (p < 0.001, 95% CI −2.40, −1.49). Our results showed a stepwise increase in PWV from control subjects, CKD stage 2 through stage 4 (p < 0.001). The mean difference of PWV between CKD stage 2 (7.6 m/s, + 1.5) and stage 4 (9.0 m/s, + 0.8) was 1.43 (p < 0.001, 95% CI −2.50, −0.35). There was significant difference of mean PWV between diabetes mellitus (DM) (8.2 m/s + 1.8) and non-DM (7.3 m/s + 1.3) patients with CKD stage 2–4 (p = 0.022, 95% CI −1.50, −0.12). Mutiple linear regression analysis showed only age (β = 0.078, p = 0.014), mean arterial pressure (MAP) (β = 0.031, p = 0.007) and diuretics usage as the combination antihypertensive medication (β = 0.839, p = 0.018) were independently associated with PWV (r2 = 0.249, p < 0.001).Conclusions:
This study shows that arterial stiffness as assessed by PWV occurs early in CKD patient and increased arterial stiffness occurs in parallel with decline of glomerular filtration rate in patients with mild-to-moderate CKD of younger-age population.