To explore what proportion of women with history of pregnancy induced hypertension (PIH) develop hypertension (HTN) and chronic kidney diseases (CKD) in later stages after delivery and, the interrelation of HTN and CKD with socio-demographic, anthropometric and biochemical risk factors.Design and Method:
Under an observational case-control design 133 women with previous history of PIH [PIH group; Age (yrs), Median (range) 31 (25–45), and BMI [(kg/m2, (Mean ± SD) (25.2 ± 2.1)] were compared with 113 women without history of PIH (Non-PIH-group), Age (yrs) Median (range) 34 (25–45), and BMI [(kg/m2, (Mean ± SD) (25.8 ± 2.9)] for the development of HTN (SBP > 130 mmHg; DBP > 90 mmHg; or MBP > 105 mmHg) and CKD (as measured by total-urinary-protein and elevated urinary-protein-creatinine-ratio (UPCR). Lipids measured by enzymatic-colorimetric method, urinary-total-protein by pyrogallol-red method, urinary-protein by strip method and urinary-creatinine by alkaline-picrate method.Results:
Out of 133 subjects in PIH-group 43 (32.3%) developed HTN and 41 (30.8%) developed CKD, in Non-PIH-group 17 (15%) developed HTN and 16 (14.2%) developed CKD. SBP, DBP and MBP, all were significantly higher in the PIH group. PIH-group had four times higher chance of developing HTN. In parallel on HTN, the PIH-group showed a significantly higher proportion of CKD [Proteinuric 10 (7.5%)]. Both urinary-total-protein and UPCR were significantly higher in PIH group and three times chance of developing CKD compared to Non-PIH-group. A significant correlation of MBP was found with UPCR, Tchol and serum uric acid. UPCR was also correlated with SBP. On logistic regression MBP had a positive association with UPCR and Uric Acid.Conclusions:
About one-third of women with a previous history of PIH develop HTN in later life and, the proportion is two times higher and the risk is four times more than the non-PIH counterparts. About 8% of women with a previous history of PIH develop CKD in later life and, the proportion is five times higher to develop and they are almost three times more vulnerable than the non-PIH group.