Hypertension is known to be more common among people with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), but the prevalence and risk factors of the comorbidity vary from population to population. The present study was undertaken to estimate the proportion of hypertension among urban and rural Bangladeshi Type 2 diabetic subjects.Design and Method:
An analytical cross-sectional study was conducted among 640-urban (M/F, 244/396; age in years, 52.23 ± 11.8; BMI, 25.95 ± 3.9 Kg/m2) and 560-rural(M/F, 244/396; age in years, 50.89 ± 11.9; BMI, 24.13.89 ± 4.6) subjects, selected purposively from various health care facilities in Dhaka and Northern Districts of Bangladesh.Results:
Hypertension was present among 45.5% urban (95% CI, 41.6-49.4) and 43.6% rural(CI, 39.5-47.7) subjects. There was no significant difference in the proportion of hypertension between the two demographic locations. Males and females did not differ in the proportion of hypertension either in the urban or in the rural region. The trend in the proportion did not vary when the data were analyzed for systolic and diastolic hypertension separately. Urban hypertensive subjects had higher age compared to their normotensive counterparts (age in years, 53.85.89 ± 10.5 vs 50.88.89 ± 12.7; p< 0.001). The rural hypertensive subjects showed similar difference in age (54.7.89 ± 11.4vs48.0.89 ± 11.5; p < 0.001). The BMI of the hypertensive subjects (25.56 ± 4.1Kg/m2) was higher compared to normotensive (24.73 ± 4.4Kg/m2) and the difference was significant (p < 0.001). The waist circumference (WC) of the hypertensive subjects (90.11 ± 13.1 cm) was similarly higher compared to normotensive subjects (86.30 ± 14.2 cm) and difference was significant (p < 0.001). Physical activity was significantly less in hypertensive compared to the normotensive subjects (p = 0.032). On Pearson correlation analysis hypertension correlated positively with WC(r = 0.092, p < 0.001), and duration of DM(r = 0.122, p < 0.001). On multiple regression analysis higher age (p < 0.001, OR = 1.036, CI, 1.025-1.048), greater WC (p < 0.001, OR = 1.014, CI, 1.004-1.025) and less physical activity (p < 0.001, OR = 1.396, CI, 1.098-1.775) were found as the main predictors of hypertension.Conclusions:
A large proportion of Type 2 diabetic subjects in Bangladesh, both males and females, irrespective of urban or rural origin, suffer from hypertension. Higher age, central obesity and reduced physical activity are the major predictors of hypertension in this population.