To assess the association of Hypertension with anthropometric indices- body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) among males in Western Indian Population.Design and Method:
Cross-sectional study of 500 hypertensive (on anti-hypertensive treatment for minimum six months) and 500 normotensive males aged 20–60 years was carried out in Pune, India. Weight, Height, Waist and Hip circumference were measured using NHANES standardized procedures. BMI was calculated using the weight and height and WHR using Waist and hip circumferences respectively. Chi square, Student's t test and chi-square trend were used for statistical analysisResults:
Mean Systolic and Diastolic BP were 137 ± 19.79 and 85.19 ± 7.03 mmHg respectively in the hypertensive population and 117 ± 10.39 and 72.23 ± 10.05 mmHg in non-hypertensive population. The mean BMI of hypertensive and non-hypertensive population was 24.39 (±3.08) kg/m2 and 22.49 (±4.64) kg/m2 respectively. 67.8% (339/550) of hypertensive were over-weight with a WHR of 0.95 (±0.019) cm compared to 30.8% (154/500) over-weight people in non-hypertensive population (WHR of 0.85 ± 0.16 cm). WC and WHR increased with increase in BMI, correlation co- efficient of BMI with WHR(95%CI 0.23–1.56) was significantly (p < 0.00001) higher than that with WC (95%CI 0.34–0.97, p < 0.00193). Significant increase in the WHR from the middle BMI tertile to the higher BMI tertile was observed (p < 0.01). Mean WHR of 0.93 (±0.014) was observed in the lower BMI tertile.Conclusions:
BMI and WHR were found to be strong indicators of abdominal obesity. High BMI was seen to have higher prevalence of Hypertension. WHR performed better than BMI and WC for assessing the risk of hypertension and may be used as an easy, convenient and economical screening tool in epidemiological studies. The risk cut-off for WC (102 cm), suggested by ATP III was higher compared to 80 cm in this population mirroring similar Asian studies.