To explore the association of traditional cardiovascular risk factors on blood pressure in an Australian rural population. Both normotensive and hypertensive populations are investigated.Design and Method:
Participants were chosen from a cross-sectional study undertaken in rural Victoria, Australia. The study investigators visited randomly selected households and participants completed a survey of health conditions in face-to-face interviews. All residents over 25-year old were invited to attend a clinical examination of blood pressure, blood biochemistry, and BMI assessments. Blood pressure was stratified according to being non-hypertensive and hypertensive. Being hypertensive was having a current or prior diagnosis of high blood pressure at the following cut-off of 140 mmHg systolic and 90 mmHg diastolic. Regression models were used to calculate interacting factors on blood pressure.Results:
Of the 1446 participants, 816 were controls, while 630 patients (43.6%) had been diagnosed with hypertension. Increased HDLc was associated with a reduced incidence of hypertension OR of 0.516 (95%CI, 0.361–0.737, P = 0.0003). In the normotensive sub-group, increasing SBP or DBP was associated with increased BMI, total cholesterol, LDLc, triglyceride, fasting glucose, uric acid, and reduced phosphate levels (all P < 0.01, corrected for age and gender). However, only increased cholesterol and LDLc levels were associated with increased SBP or DBP in hypertensive patients (all P≤0.005). Measures in the models remained significant after controlling for age and gender.Conclusions:
Our finding suggests that an optimal blood pressure is associated with a number of cardiovascular risk factors in rural populations. These include increased BMI, total cholesterol, LDL, uric acid, triglycerides, fasting glucose and phosphate. Interestingly, we note that only total cholesterol and LDL are associated with blood pressure in the rural population diagnosed with hypertension.