ARCADIA was designed to assess in adults with fibromuscular dysplasia (FMD) the frequency of FMD affecting at least two vascular beds (multisite FMD).Design and method:
Patients were eligible if they had nonatherosclerotic, noninflammatory and nonsyndromic stenosing lesions affecting renal (RA) and/or cervico-encephalic (CEA) arteries and gave informed consent to undergo skull to pelvis imaging using CT-, MR-, or digital subtraction-angiography. FMD was classified as multifocal or focal, respectively, if angiography disclosed multiple or single stenoses on a given vessel segment. The diagnosis of focal and multisite FMD was confirmed centrally.Results:
Results Among 486 patients (84% females), RA were more frequently involved than CEA. Compared with patients with focal FMD, those with multifocal FMD were older, less frequently smokers, and had more frequently bilateral RA and CEA lesions, mesenteric/splenic lesions, and multisite FMD (Table).Results:
Mean ± SD or number (%)Conclusions:
ARCADIA is the first study in which all FMD patients had major vascular beds assessed using angiography. There was a high prevalence of bilateral and multisite lesions, particularly in patients with multifocal FMD. Our data suggest that FMD is a systemic rather than a local arterial disease.