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To compare prevalence rates of overweight/obesity (O/O) and hypertension in two school population samples 10–15 years old from the same geographical area of Rio de Janeiro, with an interval of 30 years.A cross-sectional study of two population samples that were evaluated at their schools: the Rio de Janeiro Study I (RJS I) population in 1986–87 (n = 3,897, 1934 M/1963F), and the Rio de Janeiro Study II (RJS II) population in 2015 (n = 1722, 742 M/980F). BP was measured three times; height and weight were obtained. High BP was defined when systolic BP (SBP) and/or diastolic BP (DBP)> = p95 for age, gender and height percentile; O/O when body mass index > = p85 for age and gender.Population distribution by age and gender was homogeneous. The prevalence of O/O increased from 17.3% to 32,2% in 30 years (p < 0.0001). There was a higher increase of obesity (6.4% X 18.2%) than that of overweight (10.8% vs. 14.0%) after 30 years (p < 0.0001). Prevalence of high BP decreased between the two moments (10.8% X 8.4%, p < 0.02). Isolated systolic hypertension (ISH) was the most common presentation in both evaluations (79.3% X 56.3%) but more prevalent 30 years ago, although isolated diastolic hypertension (IDH) (10.8% X 22.1%) and systo-diastolic hypertension (SDH) (9.9% X 21.3%) are more prevalent in 2015 than 30 years ago (p < 0.0001). Considering age and gender, O/O rates were significantly higher in RJS II in all ages and gender groups (p < 0.01), except for girls 10 yo. For high BP, lower prevalences in RJS II were observed for girls 13 to 15 yo (p < 0.02), but not for other age and gender groups. In 2015, IDH an SDH were more prevalent in boys 11–14 yo (p < 0.02). In both occasions, there were significant correlations between SBP and DBP with BMI (p < 0.01).In 30 years, there was epidemiological transition of the prevalence of overweight / obesity and high blood pressure, with higher prevalence rates of O/O and of IDH and SDH, although ISH was the most common presentation of high BP in both occasions. These data may have implications for primary prevention strategies.