To evaluate the association of overweight/obesity (O/O) with blood pressure (BP), other cardiovascular risk factors, and birth weight in scholars 10 to 15 years old of public schools in Rio de Janeiro.Design and method:
A cross-sectional study of a population sample of 1722 students was evaluated at their schools, 742 (43.1%) males (M), and 980 (56.9%) females (F). Population distribution by age and gender was: 10 yo (n = 108, 49 M/59F), 11 yo (n = 242, 106 M 136F), 12 yo (n = 368, 169 M/104F), 13 yo (n = 397, 161 M/236F), 14 yo (n = 346, 153 M/193F), 15 yo (n = 261, 104 M/157F). BP was measured three times by oscilometric method; height, weight, abdominal circumference (AC), and information about physical activity, sedentary leisure time, smoking, family history (FH), and birth weight were obtained. O/O was defined when body mass index (BMI)> = p85 for age and gender, and high BP when systolic BP (SBP) and/or diastolic BP (DBP)>= p95 for age, gender and height percentile.Results:
The overall prevalence of O/O was 32.2% (13.8% for overweight and 18.2% for obesity), and of high BP was 8.5%. Obesity was more prevalent in boys ages 10–13yo (p < 0.02). Prevalence rates of CV risk variables were: 46.2% for central obesity; 1.5% for alcoholism; 0.6% for smoking; 60.0% for sedentary lifestyle; 60.3% for FH of hypertension; 45.8% for FH O/O. Compared with individuals with normal BMI, those with O/O showed higher SBP, DBP (p < 0.0001), and birth weight (3,180 ± 0.615 g X 3,292 ± 0.602 g, p < 0.001) means, higher prevalence of increased AC (22,4%X95.6%,p < 0,0001), and of FH for hypertension, diabetes and O/O (59.1% X 65.4%, p < 0.03; 36.8%X46.7, p < 0.0001; 39.4%X61.5%, p < 0.0001, respectively). No significant differences were observed for other variables. In multivariate logistic regression, age (OR 0.429, 95%CI 0.365–0.503, p < 0.001), AC (OR 1.459, 95%CI 1.398–1.521, p < 0.001), FH of O/O (OR 1.646, 95%CI 1.098–2.467, p < 0.02) were significantly associated with O/O.Conclusions:
In Brazilian adolescents 10–15yo, high prevalence of obesity was observed, especially in young boys, and aggregates higher blood pressure and birth weight. O/O was negatively associated with age and positively associated to abdominal circumference and family history of O/O.