Echocardiography provides left ventricular (LV) cavity morphology and overall systolic function information. The morphological variability of the ventricular walls has fractal characteristics, representing its allostatic capacity. To analyze the echocardiographic morphology of LV myocardium through the fractal dimension (FD) as a method of early diagnosis of hypertensive heart disease.Design and method:
Non-treated hypertensive (NTH) patients (p) between 40 and 60 years old without LV hypertrophy and non-hypertensive controls (C) of both sexes were included. LV myocardial echocardiographic images were obtained in parasternal short axis and apical 4 chambers views and processed through box-counting method and FrakOut software. The mean FD (FD%) and standard deviation (SD) in systole and diastole were obtained from a rect of linear regression of 17 LV segments. The expected range of FD% is a number between 1 and 2. The resulting correlation coefficient r2 to determine the FD should approach the unity, which corroborates the fractal property of the system.Results:
30 NTH p and 10 C were included. The sample mean age was 52.9+−15.1; 29 p (82.5 %) were males. The table shows the FD% and SD:Results:
The mean correlation coefficient r2 of all the segments analyzed in both groups was higher than 0.9.Conclusions:
The ventricular myocardium of patient sample is adapted to external stressors since it preserves fractal properties. Segments that may be suffering an adaptive process would be those of the anteroseptal and lateral walls, since these segments were those who reached maximum FD%.