High salt and low potassium (K) intakes raise blood pressure and induce cardiovascular diseases. Since significant relationships between sodium (Na) to K ratio (Na/K) of 24-hour urine and that of morning spot urine were noted, we investigated whether food education-program by checking Na/K of morning spot urine would improve the dietary habit of elementary school children.Design and method:
The 2-month food education program was carried out in September 2015. After the informed consent, 218 school children were invited to the food education program, and 194 children (109 boys) participated. First, we collected their morning spot urine, and reported the result of Na/K at the food education class when they learned how to improve their Na/K data. After 2 months, we collected their morning spot urine again to analyze changes in their Na/K.Results:
The Na/K of morning spot urine were 5.2 ± 2.3 in boys, and 4.9 ± 2.6 in girls (p = 0.40); 84.4% in boys and 81.2% in girls were over the standard value of Na/K, 3. And after the food education class, Na/K were 4.1 ± 2.0 in boys, and 3.8 ± 2.3 in girls (p = 0.27), both significantly decreased from their baseline level (p < 0.0001). And the ratios of over the standard value were decreased, down to 33.9% in boys and 45.9% in girls.Conclusions:
Food education by checking the Na/K of morning spot urine is effective for improving dietary habits in school children, and novel food education method in the young requires the further study whether it is effective for preventing hypertension in adults.